Wednesday, December 11, 2019

The 5 Step Risk Management Model Essay Example For Students

The 5 Step Risk Management Model Essay The 5-step risk management model offers a continuous, organized decision-making method to guide the risk planning process. This model allows managers to 1) identify risks, 2) assess hazards, 3) develop controls and make decisions, 4) implement controls, and 5) supervise and evaluate changes. The 5-step model forms the basis for deliberate planning, and familiarization further forms a framework for individuals that make risk decisions at the operational phase or tactical level. Step one begins with the identification of hazards associated with a specific activity. A hazard is any real or potential condition that compromises the health and wellness or death of personnel, or damages or destroys equipment and property. During this step, review current plans and tasks associated with a specific operation and attempt to list all known hazards or factors that may lead to a mishap. Additionally, list any causes linked to each specific hazard and determine possible root causes. After identifying hazards, an assessment of those hazards can be made. This involves determining the quantitative and/or qualitative factors to estimate the probability and severity of an undesirable state from occurring. Assessments are made by evaluating time, vicinity, scope, or frequency of exposure to a hazard. Severity should be determined with consideration of impact on personnel, equipment, and operational capability, and an estimate of the probability of the hazard occurring should be determined. From there, a comprehensive risk assessment can be determined and a level of risk assigned in relation to severity and probability. A risk assessment matrix can be used to determine the outcome of a hazard. Levels of risk range from extremely high, high, medium, or low, and are determined based on the probability of occurrence in relation to the severity of the consequence. Severity is broken down into four levels: catastrophic, critical, moderate, and negligible. The probability of the event from occurring is divided into five different levels: frequent, likely, occasional, seldom, and unlikely. The matrix is then used as a visual guide to determine the level of risk and overall impact. The third step of the model involves the development of controls to mitigate or eliminate risk. This starts with identifying control options beginning with the highest risk hazards that are identified in step two. Every hazard has at least one control that can be implemented to effectively mitigate, remove, or reduce a risk to an acceptable level. After identifying controls, managers should determine the effects associated with each control following step two – hazard assessment – again. Other factors to consider would be cost in personnel, time, and money to determine production-protection value. Once controls are determined to be a feasible method of hazard mitigation, they need to be prioritized to maximize risk reduction and optimize the use of resources. The operation or activity should be re-analyzed with the proposed controls in place to determine the effectiveness of the risk controls before they are implemented. Risk management is not a trial-and-error process and no process should be modified without assessing the effects of the change first. It is possible that a control can create a new hazard in its attempt to avoid another. Alternatively, not all hazards may be readily identifiable or predictable until after the process is implemented. For example, volcanic activity may force reroutes to flight plans over hundreds of miles to avoid engine clogging ash. Airlines will want to take the shortest route to save costs on fuel. However, if the new flightpath takes aircraft over hostile territory, this could risk aircraft being attacked from ground forces. Airlines can choose to take the risk of flying over hostile territory or to take on the financial costs of again rerouting flights hundreds of miles further to avoid both volcanic ash and the hostile territory. .ud125b603fd66f669f191f732b22824e7 , .ud125b603fd66f669f191f732b22824e7 .postImageUrl , .ud125b603fd66f669f191f732b22824e7 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ud125b603fd66f669f191f732b22824e7 , .ud125b603fd66f669f191f732b22824e7:hover , .ud125b603fd66f669f191f732b22824e7:visited , .ud125b603fd66f669f191f732b22824e7:active { border:0!important; } .ud125b603fd66f669f191f732b22824e7 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ud125b603fd66f669f191f732b22824e7 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ud125b603fd66f669f191f732b22824e7:active , .ud125b603fd66f669f191f732b22824e7:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ud125b603fd66f669f191f732b22824e7 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ud125b603fd66f669f191f732b22824e7 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ud125b603fd66f669f191f732b22824e7 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ud125b603fd66f669f191f732b22824e7 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ud125b603fd66f669f191f732b22824e7:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ud125b603fd66f669f191f732b22824e7 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ud125b603fd66f669f191f732b22824e7 .ud125b603fd66f669f191f732b22824e7-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ud125b603fd66f669f191f732b22824e7:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Risk Management in Banking EssayOnce appropriate risk controls are decided upon, they need to be implemented in step four of the risk management process. Managers need to strategize the best way to develop and carry out implementation of controls. The planning process should be detailed and include the who, what, when, where, and cost for setting the gears in motion. Accountability is a key aspect of this process. From the project leader down to the front line operator, each person is responsible for doing their part exactly as planned to reach the desired goal. Any miscalculation or deviation can potentially open the door for new hazards or have negative repercussions. Ev ery stakeholder is responsible for ensuring risk controls are implemented correctly. Control implementation needs to be outlined clearly. Everyone involved should understand the vision for the changes being implemented. The person making the decisions is accountable for the roll-out process. They need to ensure a roadmap is clearly communicated to those performing the changes. The accountable executive must have a presence in this process and be willing to provide the resources needed to fully accomplish the goal. Successful implementation relies on sustained commitment across all levels with a cradle-to-grave mentality. Once implementation of hazard controls is completed, managers need to supervise and evaluate the process throughout its life cycle. All stakeholders must do their part to ensure the process remains consistent over time. Periodic evaluation is key to ensuring sustainability and effectiveness of the activity. This is done through persistent supervision and evaluation. Supervision entails continuous monitoring of the operation or activity. This increases confidence that hazard controls are effective and remain in place. Supervisors ensure that ineffective risk controls are corrected or are redirected for further risk assessments. As employees come and go, the operation or activity changes, or the mission environment evolves, risks and controls will need to be re-evaluated for currency and effectiveness. In business and safety one thing is certain: change is continuous. Part of the supervision process is evaluation. The risk management review process must be systematic. An evaluation should be performed once risk controls are in place to evaluate the cost benefit of the program. It is unlikely that initial implementation of a control will be spot-on perfect and minor adjustments and tweaking may be needed. Frequent evaluation allows for the identification of errors during enrollment and further analysis of the effectiveness of the changes. Audits and surveys provide department leaders the assurance that risk controls are doing what they are designed to do. In order to promote risk management effectiveness in an SMS there needs to be communication flow from top to bottom and bottom to top. A reporting system needs to be in place to allow line operators doing the hands on work to up-channel problems in the process. The reporting system should be widely accessible and easy enough to access for employees to be able to submit reports without frustration. The more difficult the process, the less likely a report will be made.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The dramatic significance Essay Example

The dramatic significance Paper In this next part of this play there is both humour an growing tension between the characters. In this next section Eddies Paper Is a very important prop towards his actions, He has bent the rolled paper and it suddenly tears in two This Stage action shows his anger which he needs to unleash. At this point in the scene I think Eddie is reading his newspaper because he doesnt want to be in the conversation with Rodolfo because he despises him, he is also reading his newspaper to hide behind so he doesnt show everyone he is full of anger and jealousy of Rodolfo. Eddie is full of anger because he has just been in an argument with Rodolfo. Eddie has only stopped arguing because Marco is on his side and he agrees with him, which Eddie did not expect so he still has all his anger flaring up inside of him so he sits down and hides behind his newspaper. Catherine putting on a record and asking Rodolfo to dance shows that her attitude towards Eddie is very revengeful and she knows that he doesnt like her being with Rodolfo so she knows this will get him very angry. When Catherine asked Rodolfo to dance he refuses at first, because he knows Eddie doesnt want him to dance with her and having Eddie in the room Rodolfo can feel Eddies eyes on his back. Rodolfo doesnt want to antagonise Eddie any more. At this point in the play when Eddie asks if the record Paper Doll is a new record, He is implying that Rodolfo is spending a lot of money on records and other American things and not saving it to go back to Italy. We will write a custom essay sample on The dramatic significance specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The dramatic significance specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The dramatic significance specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The stage directions at this point She watches them dance Eddie turns his head away tells us that Beatrices feelings are very proud for Catherine and happy for her because she is watching her dance, where as Eddies feelings should be the same but he is angry that Rodolfo is dancing with his niece and he is backing up his belief that Rodolfo is only going to marry Catherine for his papers, which he doesnt want and he Turns his head away not wanting to watch them because he doesnt like the sight of them being together. Beatrice continues to talk about the fishing boats because she knows that she looks foolish, so she keeps talking so she doesnt look so bad and is also trying to lighten everybody up because it is getting very tense in the room. It also shows that she just like Catherine has been brought up in an over protected environment and is very interested and wants to know more just like Catherine did. The effect on the audience of Eddie lowering his newspaper and saying Hes a cook too is that everybody will find it funny and laugh and it is also saying that he is not reading his paper he is listening to every word and is hiding his anger behind his paper. When Eddie says this, the stage direction about Rodolfo suggests that he has taken it as a compliment and smiles thankfully, when really Eddie is trying to imply that he is a homosexual. The tone of Catherines words They get some high pay those guys is, that she knows Eddie is insulting him but she is pretending to take it the same way as Rodolfo by saying this. She is also saying that he can go further in life than Eddie and is also sticking up for Rodolfo. The effects of Eddies repetition of He sings, he cooks and makes dresses is that he wants to insult him and it is only at this point in the play that Rodolfo realises that he is insulting him. As soon as Eddie has torn the paper his mood changes dramatically. From insulting Rodolfo in his much masked way he offers the two brothers an invitation to a bout. The other characters cant quite make out at this point but they are happy that he isnt insulting him no more. At this point in the scene Miller includes the stage direction. Pulls his pants over his belly. This is showing the audience and the other characters around him his manliness, as though he is getting ready for something. Eddie offers to take Marco to a boxing match because Eddie wants to get at Rodolfo and not asking him to the boxing match at first and asking Marco is like he is trying to say come on Marco let us men go to a manly fight, and leave girlie Rodolfo to do his girlie cooking and making dresses . Marco is uneasy in his reply because he doesnt know what Eddie is trying to do, and he doesnt know what Eddie wants out of him. Eddie has just insulted his brother so he is really not sure. The significance of Eddie inviting Rodolfo along too shows that he has clearly thought this process through so he will get the chance to show Rodolfo how to box and give him a taste of what hes made of. Eddie has been ignoring him and offending him and is now inviting him to go out to the fight with him to cover up his animosity. Danish it is a nickname which suggests friendship. It also links up to the beginning of the play when Eddie had no reason to hate Rodolfo and he says this. Eddie is also trying to lighten the atmosphere in the room. At this point in the play Catherine offers to make some coffee for everyone because she feels that Eddie has finally got to like Rodolfo and is being kind to him by inviting him to the boxing match. Miller has got her to go out the room so when she comes back in and finds Eddie and Rodolfo fighting she will be in great shock. Eddies reply Go ahead, make some! Make it nice and strong! shows that he is still on the subject of boxing and to be a boxer you need to be very strong. He also says this because having her out the room makes it better for Eddie to hit Rodolfo whilst teaching him to box. It is also a side swipe at Rodolfo. He says make it strong because he isnt and needs to be to figure with Eddie. Eddie saying Make it nice and strong mystifies Catherine because she cant fully understand why he has said this and is confused. Eddie is Weirdly elated because of what he is about to do. He is rubbing his fists into the palm of his hand as though he is about to have a fight and he is going to hit Rodolfo and this makes him excited and happy. Beatrices comment Whats he got to learn that for? shows she has noticed that something bad is going to happen and is warning us of this. Eddies comment Someones liable to step on his foot? is ironic because we know what is going to happen in the end and that the person who is going to step on his foot is going to be Eddie. Rodolfo only agrees to let Eddie teach him how to box because Beatrice says Go ahead , Rodolfo. Hes a good boxer, he could teach you He takes Beatrices advice as she is part of his family and he trusts her. If I were directing this play I would show that Rodolfo isnt very good at boxing but he was able to pick it up very easily. The characters around him were saying at boxing he was good to try boost his confidence, especially when Beatrice says Hes very good! because he starts to jab at Eddie with a lot more comfort in doing it. Miller at this point has Catherine come back into the room because now Eddie says Now I am gonna hit you so block me, see? so this will make Catherine think that theyre having a fight and could take it the wrong way, and be very shocked, Eddie also waits for Catherine to enter the room so he can show Rodolfo up by hitting him and showing how weak he is. Eddie, later on in this play repeats this show by kissing Rodolfo in front of Catherine. The effect on the characters and the audience of Eddie landing Rodolfo with his right is that everybody is shocked. Marco rises as though he is ready to get Eddie and defend his brother, and the audience feel that he is going to say something to Eddie, Beatrice and Catherine are shocked because they didnt think that Eddie would do such a thing as this. The effect of Eddie Rubbing the back of his hand across his mouth is that it is showing that he has finished with him, just as you would if you were to wipe your mouth when you are finished with your dinner. It also shows a sense of enjoyment and that he has won and beat Rodolfo. Rodolfo says that Eddie did not hurt him when he punched him, he has certain gleam and smile as if to say that no he didnt hurt me I am a strong man and that his punch was very weak, when really it did hurt him. He is trying to mock Eddie but Rodolfo also gives a sign that he understands Eddies motions perfectly and fully intends to pay him back. Eddie turns to Marco and says He could be very good because he is trying to cover the fact that he really did mean to hurt him but then saying this just means he was just teaching him. When Eddie says Ill teach him again it has a double meaning because the way he wants everyone to take it, is that he will teach him boxing again also saying that he will teach him properly and really have a fight with him and teach him not to mess with him again. At this point Rodolfo asks Catherine to dance because he knows that Eddie doesnt like seeing them together so having Eddie see them dance close together he will not like it and it will make him jealous, Rodolfo is getting his own back on Eddie in his own tormenting way. The closing scene of the first act is extremely tense and dramatic, Marco challenges Eddie to a contest of strength. Whilst it is all quiet and only Catherine and Rodolfo are dancing, Marco slowly and quietly picks up a wooden chair and places it in front of Eddie, and looks down at it. The audience are very confused as to what Marco is doing as well as Eddie and Beatrice. Marco then says Can you lift this chair? The curiosity is increasing in everybody as to what is going on. Marco then explains what the task is that he wants Eddie to do. He goes down to the chair, kneels, grasps the bottom of one of the chairs legs but does not lift it because if he did it would take the drama from Eddie failing it. From here Marco says with a quiet soft voice. Eddie thinking it will be very easy replys Sure why not? He goes to the chair, kneels, grasps the leg, raises the chair one inch, but leans over to the floor. Eddie tries over again and again he fails, although the task is very hard, he tries to tell Marco why its so hard by giving him an excuse for him failing Its on an angle, thats why, heh? Marco kneels down and grasps the leg of the chair. He lifts the chair fully off the ground and keeps rising stands up tall with the chair held way above Eddie. Marco is face to face with Eddie, a strained tension in Marcos face as he gripping the chair telling the characters that it is hard but yet he is determined to do it. Marco is doing this in family solidarity, defending his brother as Eddie has just defeated Rodolfo and now, Marco has just defeated Eddie. Eddie was acting like a bully to Rodolfo and now Marco has got Eddie as if to say bullies never win. The end of this act is like the same as the end of act two because Eddie is been defeated by a kind of strength and the characters are very tense and silent. The significance of placing the interval here is that Miller knows the audience needs a break from the tension. Doing this he gives the two acts a symmetrical structure which helps the audience predict the later action. Ending this act in tragedy from Eddies behaviour prefigures the end of the play. This scene has demonstrated the destructive nature of Eddies love for Catherine. His love for her has taken over his life and it is as if it is the only thing on his mind in the play. Eddie, Beatrice, Marco and Rodolfo all have to start to consider the importance of family loyalty and honour.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Media Planning Essay Example

Media Planning Essay â€Å"Whoever controls the media controls the culture. † – ALLEN GINSBERG, POET â€Å"Information is the oxygen of the modern age. † – RONALD REAGAN, US PRESIDENT Media Today â€Å"Your TV is ringing. † Maybe you saw the Verizon ad that shows a cellphone with a TV attached to it—pointing out that you can talk on the phone and watch TV at the same time, on one piece of equipment. If you saw it, you might have said, â€Å"cool,† or â€Å"I want that,† or â€Å"what a ridiculous thing to do. † But Verizon could have gone further. The ad could have pointed out that some of the company’s cellphones also let you watch movies, play video games, download and listen to music, and read a newspaper or magazine. It’s an exciting time to study mass communication. None of the activities described above could have been attempted on a cellphone (call it a mobile device) just a few years ago. They raise questions about the impact that these and other technologies will have on us, our society, and the content of TV, movies, video games, music, newspapers, magazines, and movie companies. In fact, the transformations are so great that you have the opportunity to know more than conventional experts, to challenge traditional thinking, and to encourage fresh public discussions about media and society. Consider the mass media menu that Americans have today. Instead of three or four TV channels, most Americans receive more than fifty and a substantial number receive one hundred and fifty and more. Radio in urban areas delivers dozens of stations; satellite radio brings in hundreds more, and music streaming on the Web—sometimes called Internet radio—is carried out by countless broadcast and non-broadcast entities. We will write a custom essay sample on Media Planning specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Media Planning specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Media Planning specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The advent of home computers, VCRs, CD players, DVDs, and DBS has brought far more channels of sights and sounds into people’s lives than ever before. So has the Internet and the World Wide Web, the computer network that Americans use to interact with information, news and entertainment from all over the nation and the world. Research indicates that Americans typically spend an enormous amount of time with mass media. 1 Think about your own media habits. How close do you come to the average 32 hours a week (about 4. hours a day) of television that Americans view on the traditional TV set as well as online? What about radio? Studies suggest that Americans listen to around 15 hours a week of radio in the regular broadcast mode, via satellite channels or from their online feeds. Do you do that, or do you instead listen to recorded music on your iPod or on your MP3 or CD player? Studies show that Americans spend an average of about 3. 5 hours a week with recorded music, but colleg e students undoubtedly do more of it. And what about your time reading books, newspapers and magazines? Data show that on average Americans spend about 8 hours a week with one or another of these, both their printed versions and their websites. Just a few years ago, media such as television, radio, books and newspapers seemed pretty separate. It was clear what content from each medium looked or sounded like, and it would have been foolish to suggest that newspaper articles and television programs would show up on the same channel. Today, with the rise of new computer technologies that we will explain in the coming pages, this â€Å"foolishness† is exactly what has happened. The access people have on the Internet to content from different types of media is part of a process called convergence. Convergence takes place when content that has traditionally been confined to one medium appears on multiple media channels. The media of mass communication, then, are an integral part of our lives, occurring in a wide variety of settings. In this chapter, we will explore and define communication, media, and culture, and we will consider how the relationships among them affect us and the world in which we live. We will also consider why the term mass communication remains relevant in the twenty-first century, contrary to what some writers say. In fact, the changes taking place in the media system actually make a rethought and redefined version of the term more important than ever. U N D E R S T A N D I N G T H E N A T U R E O F M A S S M E D I A Varieties of Communication onvergence when content that has traditionally been confined to one medium appears on multiple media channels audience fragmentation the process of dividing audience members into segments based on background and lifestyle in order to send them messages targeted to their specific characteristics mass production process the industrial process that creates the potential for reaching millions, even billions, of diverse, anonymous people at around the same time industrial nature what distinguishes mass communication from other forms of communication is the industrialized—or mass production—process that is involved in creating the message material. This industrial process creates the potential for reaching billions of diverse, anonymous people simultaneously. The traditional notion of the audience as a large mass of anonymous individuals has given way beneath the fragmenting of audiences to reveal smaller, specially targeted media audiences made up of individuals who are segmented by any number of characteristics. To understand why some writers suggest that the term mass communication doesn’t connect to what’s going on in today’s world, we have to look at how the term has traditionally been used. Over the past one hundred years, people who wrote about mass communication tended to relate it to the size of the audience. That made a lot of sense back then. From the mid-nineteenth century onward, new technologies such as high-speed newspaper presses, radio, movies, and television provided access to the huge â€Å"masses† of people. Not only were those audiences very large, they were dispersed geographically, quite diverse (that is, made up of different types of people), and typically anonymous to the companies that created the material. The essential reason newspapers, radio, television, and other such media were considered different from other means of communication had to do with the size and composition of the audience. This perspective on mass communication worked very well until the past couple of decades when the key aspects of the traditional definition of mass communication as reaching huge, diverse groups no longer fit. The reason is that the arrival of media channels—including the growing number of radio and TV stations, the rise of the VCR, the multiplication of cable networks, and the rise of the Web— led to audience fragmentation (see Figure 1. 1). That is, as people watched or read these new channels, there were fewer people using any one of them. Because these new media channels do not necessarily individually reach large numbers of people—the â€Å"masses†Ã¢â‚¬â€some writers suggested that we can abandon the term mass communication. However, the view in this book is that mass communication is still a critically important part of society. In our view, what really separates mass communication from other forms of communication is not the size of the audience—it can be large or small. Rather, what makes mass communication special is the way the content of the communication message is created. Mass communication is carried out by organizations working together in industries to produce and circulate a wide range of content—from entertainment to news to educational materials. It is this industrial, mass production process that creates the potential for reaching millions, even billions, of diverse, anonymous people at around the same time (say, through televising the Olympic games). And it is the industrial nature of the process—for example, the various companies that work together within the television or Internet industries—that makes mass communication different from other forms of communication even when 6 U N D E R S T A N D I N G M A S S M E D I A Figure 1. 1 Audience Fragmentation The arrival of the diverse Media channel A array of media channels has had a fragmenting effect on audiences—as audience members move to watch, read, or listen to a new channel, fewer people use any single channel. Media channel B Media channel E Media channel C Media channel F Media channel D C Media channel G C the audience is relatively small and even one-to-one. To help you understand how mass communication relates to other forms of communication, let’s take a closer look. Communication Defined Different types of communication are a basic feature of human life. In general, the word communication refers to people interacting in ways that at least one of the parties involved understands as messages. What are messages? Messages are collections of symbols that appear purposefully organized (meaningful) to those sending or receiving them. Think about the many ways that you signal to others what you want to do or how much you care about them. The signals are often verbal but they can also be through body language. When Jane shouts excitedly to her friend Jack and leaps with joy into his arms after she wins a tennis match, that’s a form of communication. It’s likely that Jack, whose arms she almost broke, realizes that she wants to tell him something. People who study communication would typically call the interaction just described interpersonal communication, a form that involves two or three individuals signaling to each other using their voices, facial and hand gestures, and other signs (even clothes) that they use to convey meaning. When you talk to your parents about your coursework, discuss a recent movie over dinner with friends, or converse with your professor during her office hours, you are participating in the interpersonal form of communication. ommunication refers to people interacting in ways that at least one of the parties involved understands as messages messages collections of symbols that appear purposefully organized (meaningful) to those sending or receiving them interpersonal communication a form of communication that involves two or three individuals signaling to each other using their voices, facial, and hand gestures, and other signs (even clothes) that they use to convey meaning 7 U N D E R S T A N D I N G T H E N A T U R E O F M A S S M E D I A Mediated Interpersonal Communication Breakdown When tragedy strikes, it is not unusual for people to lose their sense of security in the world—at least temporarily. Yet large-scale crises may also prompt people to lose faith in the communication systems that they have come to depend on for information. During the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, many media channels were inaccessible. Phone lines were jammed for hours, and some local radio and television stations were knocked off the air. In addition, a number of websites crashed while others failed to provide information about the attacks, leading one reporter to declare that â€Å"the Internet failed miserably. † In 2007 during the shooting rampage at Virginia Tech, dis, cussions resurfaced about communication during crises. This time, however, the focus was not on the technology but on the way people were using it, particularly new media formats such as mobile devices, blogs, and social networking sites. C U L T U R E T O D A Y As the attacks unfolded, many students used their Facebook and MySpace pages to let family and friends know they were okay. In fact, science reporter Alan Boyle remarked that â€Å"the media methods employed during [the] crisis broke new ground—and undoubtedly saved lives in the process. Others, meanwhile, questioned why Virginia Tech authorities did not take advantage of communication technologies to immediately alert members of the campus community that they were in danger. Andrew Kantor, a technology reporter for USA Today, saw this event and its aftermath as evidence that people have yet to adapt fully to new types of communication. Sources: Alan Boyle, â€Å"How Smart Mobs Coped with a Massacre, † MSNBC, accessed on 6/11/07, http://www. msnbc. msn. com/ id/18184075/; Andrew Kantor, â€Å"Virginia Tech Tragedy Highlights Differences between Old, New Media, USA Today, accessed on † 6/11/07, www. usatoday. com; Jen Muehlbauer, â€Å"Reporting the Unthinkable, The Industry Standard’s Media Grok, accessed on † 9/12/01, http://www. nettime. rg/Lists-Archives/nettime-bold-0109/ msg00273. html. mediated interpersonal communication a specialized type of interpersonal communication that is assisted by a device, such as a pen or pencil, a computer, or a telephone intrapersonal communication an individual â€Å"talking† to himself or herself small group communication communication among three or more individuals organizational communication the interactions of individuals in a formal working environment Mediated interpersonal communication, which is a specialized type of interpersonal communication, can be described as interpersonal communication that is assisted by a device, such as a pen, a computer, or a telephone. When you write a thank you note to your grandmother, send an email to your graduate teaching assistant, or call a friend on the phone, you are participating in the mediated form of interpersonal communication. In this form of communication, the people you are interacting with can’t touch you and you can’t touch them. You might even be thousands of miles from each other. The technology—the pen and paper, the computer, the telephone—becomes the vehicle (the medium) that allows you to interact with them. Communication scholars also differentiate among other forms of communication. Some write about intrapersonal communication, which involves an individual â€Å"talking† to himself or herself—for example, an internal â€Å"conversation† that weighs the pros and cons of a decision. Other researchers write about small group communication, organizational communication, or public communication. Small group communication involves communication among three or more individuals. Think of the deliberations of five friends who get together to plan a ski trip. Organizational communication involves the interaction of individuals in a formal working environment. When an executive sends messages down the chain of command, this is a form of orga- 8 U N D E R S T A N D I N G M A S S M E D I A nizational communication. Public communication involves one person who speaks to a large number of people—for instance, a professor speaking to students, or a candidate for public office talking to a crowd at a rally. Note that hese forms of communication can each take place interpersonally or they can be mediated. A group planning a ski group can meet face-to-face or can interact through email. The boss could talk to her department heads in her office, or leave a message on their phone mail system. A professor can talk in front of the class, or leave a video of himself or herself for the students to watch. While the types of communication described above have their differences, they have a central similarity: they involve messages. Seven major elements are involved in every interaction that involves messages. These elements are the source, encoder, transmitter, channel, decoder, receiver, and feedback. Let’s take them one at a time. In communication, the source is the originator of a message. public communication one person who speaks to a large number of people Source The source is the originator of the message. The source may be a person (when Jane speaks to Jack), or several people (a choir singing). But the source can also be an organization. For example, suppose you receive a notice in your mailbox from your bank. While individuals who work there created and sent the notice, from your standpoint, â€Å"the bank† was the source of the message. The source may or may not have knowledge about the intended receiver of the message, but it does have a thought or idea to transmit to some other person or organization. Encoding Encoding is the process by which the source translates the thoughts and ideas so that they can be perceived by the human senses—these are primarily sight and sound, but may also include smell, taste, and touch. A source creates or encodes a message in anticipation of its transmission to a receiver. When the source is an individual, the encoding goes on in the individual’s brain. When the source is an organization, encoding takes place when people in the organization create messages. Transmitting The transmitter performs the physical activity of actually sending out the message. Picture an employee apologizing to a supervisor for taking an unauthorized day off from work. The employee’s vocal cords and face muscles— in fact, his entire body—will be involved in the transmission of the words, tone, and physical movements that the supervisor standing in front of him will understand as meaningful. Now, picture this same employee apologizing to his supervisor, not in person, but over the phone. In this case, a second type of transmitter operates along with the vocal cords. That second transmitter is the telephone, which turns sound waves from the vocal cords into electrical impulses that can travel across the phone lines. The telephone is an example of a mediating technology, or medium, of communication. A medium is part of a technical system that helps in the transmission, ource the originator of the message which may be a person, several people or an organization encoding the process by which the source translates the thoughts and ideas so that they can be perceived by the human senses— primarily sight and sound, but may also include smell, taste, and touch transmitter performs the physical activity of distributing the message medium part of a technical system that helps in the transmission, distribution, or reception of messages 9 U N D E R S T A N D I N G T H E N A T U R E O F M A S S M E D I A 1 The source encodes a message using the brain and transmits it through the air waves (a medium) using parts of the body (vocal cords, facial muscles). 2 The receiver hears the source’s voice, decodes the message using the senses, and prepares to encode an answer. This process of responding is called interpersonal feedback. The message travels through the air (the channel ) to reach the other person (the receiver ). 6 The former source is now the receiver. The receiver decodes the message and prepares to encode an answer (more interpersonal feedback ). In this way the interpersonal communication episode continues. 5 4 The receiver encodes a response using the brain and transmits it (the feedback) using pa rts of the body. When transmitting, the receiver becomes a source. The message travels through the air (the channel ) to reach the other person. Figure 1. 2 A Model of Interpersonal Communication In this model of interpersonal communication, information moves from a starting point at the source, through the transmitter, via the channel, to the receiver for decoding. channels the pathways through which the transmitter sends all features of the message, whether they involve sight, sound, smell, or touch distribution, or reception of messages. It helps communication take place when senders and receivers are not face-to-face. The Internet is an example of a medium, as are the radio, CD, television, and DVD. (Note that the term medium is singular; it refers to one technological vehicle for communication. The plural is media. ) Channel All communication, whether mediated or not, takes place through channels. Channels are the pathways through which the transmitter sends all features of the message, whether they involve sight, sound, smell, or touch. When a man on the street walks up to you and shouts at you in a way that you can hardly understand, the channel is the air through which the sound waves move from the man’s vocal cords. If your roommate yells at you through the phone, two channels are at work: one channel is the air that vibrates the phone mechanism, and the other is the wire through which the electrical impulses move toward you. Decoding Before a receiver can hear (and make sense of) a source’s message, the transmitted impulses must be converted to signs that the brain can perceive as meaningful. Decoding is the way in which this is done. It is the reverse of the encoding process—it is the process by which the receiver translates the source’s thoughts and ideas so that they have meaning. In the case of the interpersonal communication, the decoder is biological: the brain is the decoder. When the telephone is involved, the electrical impulses that traveled through the phone lines must be decoded into sound waves before they can be decoded by the brain. In fact, all media require this sort of decoding. When you play music on an MP3 player or iPod, it decodes the impulses that have been laid down on the disk so that you can hear the tunes. Similarly, the television is the decoding the process by which the receiver translates the source’s thoughts and ideas so that they have meaning 10 U N D E R S T A N D I N G M A S S M E D I A The source (a person) encodes a message using the brain and transmits it through the telephone (a medium) using parts of the body (vocal cords, facial muscles). The phone enco des the message as electrical signals. 2 The message travels through the air, phone, and phone lines (the media channels) to reach the other person (the receiver). 3 The phone (a receiver medium) rings. A human receiver (a person) answers the phone. The phone decodes the electrical transmission into sound, and the human receiver decodes the human source’s message using the senses and prepares to encode an answer. This process of responding is called interpersonal feedback. 6 The former source is now the receiver. The receiver (a person) decodes the message and prepares to encode an answer (more interpersonal feedback). In this way the mediated interpersonal communication episode continues. 5 4 The receiver (a person) encodes a response using the brain and transmits it (the feedback) using parts of the body and the phone. When transmitting, the receiver becomes a source. The message travels through the air, phone, and phone lines (the media channels) to reach the other person. Figure 1. 3 decoder that takes the electrical impulses from the air or cable and converts them into the programs you watch. A Model of Mediated Interpersonal Communication In this model of mediated interpersonal communication, information moves from a starting point to a source, who encodes a message. The message is transmitted through channels to the receiver, who decodes the message. receiver the person or organization that gets the message feedback when the receiver responds to the message with what the sender perceives as a message Receiver As suggested above, the receiver is the person or organization that gets the message. Sometimes the source’s message will reach its intended receiver; sometimes it reaches another receiver altogether. But even if someone other than the intended receiver receives the message, communication has still taken place. Say, for example, that you assume that your friend Brad is in the next room and, as a result, you shout your opinion about his new girlfriend, Keiko. Even if it turns out that Brad wasn’t in the next room at all and did not hear (receive) the message you sent him, but instead his girlfriend, Keiko, was in the next room, the episode can still be considered interpersonal communication: your message was encoded, transmitted via your vocal cords, sent through the channel of the air, decoded by the receiver (although not the one you intended), and received. Feedback Feedback occurs when the receiver responds to the message with what the sender perceives as a message. When Keiko, your friend’s girlfriend, tells you, â€Å"I never knew you felt that way about me, you jerk,† that is feedback. In fact, this sort of feedback continues the interpersonal communication process. As Figure 1. shows, two people continue their communication by continually receiving and responding to each other’s messages. The same thing happens with mediated interpersonal communication, as shown in Figure 1. 3. The communication â€Å" episode† 11 U N D E R S T A N D I N G T H E N A T U R E O F M A S S M E D I A between the two ends when one of them sends no more feedback to the other (the person walks away, the parties hang up the phone). Feedback doesn’t always take place immediately, especially in mediated interpersonal communication. Say you send your friend an email. Keiko reads it, gets embarrassed by something you wrote and decides to write you a reply. You read the note and then, after thinking about it for a day, write back directly to her. Her email and your response are examples of delayed feedback. noise is an environmental, mechanical, and semantic sound in the communication situation that interferes with the delivery of the message. Environmental noise comes from the setting where the source and receiver are communicating. Mechanical noise comes from the medium through which the communication is taking place. Semantic noise involves language that one or more of the participants doesn’t understand. Noise Noise is an environmental, mechanical, and semantic sound in the communication situation that interferes with the delivery of the message. Environmental noise comes from the setting where the source and receiver are communicating. In an interpersonal communication situation, Ahmed, the source, may be at a cricket match trying to talk on the phone, and Sally, the receiver, might be at an auction where people are screaming bids. Mechanical noise comes from the medium through which the communication is taking place. Say there is static on the phone—that would be mechanical noise that would add to the environmental noise. Semantic noise involves language that one or more of the participants doesn’t understand. Let’s say Ahmed tells Sally that â€Å"the bowler attempted a bouncer that turned into a beamer. † Even when Ahmed repeats the words three times through the environmental and mechanical noise so that she hears them, Sally has no idea what Ahmed is talking about, since she knows little about the sport of cricket. From Communication to Mass Communication One way to understand mass communication is to show its similarities to and differences from other forms of communication. One similarity is that mass communication takes place through media. Small groups can come together in virtual chat rooms that are connected by wired networks, organizations can connect their far-flung employees via video conference facilities that are linked through cables and satellites, and professors who deliver public lectures can record them for projection from a computer server to different classes at different times. In other words, the channels used in mediated forms of interpersonal, group, organizational and public communication are sometimes similar to those used in mass communication. Yet another similarity between these other forms of communication and mass communication is that we can describe mass communication using the same terms of source, encoder, transmitter, channel, decoder, receiver, feedback, and noise that are shown in Table 1. 1. But here is also where we begin to see differences. The most important differences relate to the source of the message, its transmitter and the way feedback takes place. Differences in the Source In the other forms of communication we’ve discussed, individuals are the source of the message that scholars study. In mass communication, by contrast, complex organizations, often companies, take responsibility for the activity. The source is an organization such as a company, not a single person. To get a strong grasp of the difference, think of Jon Stewart delivering his version of the news on Comedy Central’s The Daily Show. If Jon were in the same room as you telling you about what he just read in the paper, that would be a clear case of interpersonal communication and Stewart would be a source. If your friend were to record that conversation on his video camera and his brother were to watch 12 U N D E R S T A N D I N G M A S S M E D I A Ta b l e 1 . 1 Differences in Types of Communication Interpersonal Communication Message Source Encoding Uses all the senses An individual By an individual’s brain Mediated Interpersonal Communication Typically verbal and/or visual An individual By an individual’s brain and technology The air, technology A few or many individuals in the same location By technology and an individual’s brain Immediate or delayed; generally direct Mass Communication Typically verbal and/or visual One or more organizations By an organization and technology The air, technology Typically, many people in different locations By technology and an individual’s brain Immediate or delayed; generally indirect Environmental, mechanical, and semantic, sometimes caused by organizations Channel Receiver The air A few individuals in the same location By an individual’s brain Decoding Feedback Immediate and direct Noise Environmental, mechanical, and semantic Environmental, mechanical, and semantic, with environmental sometimes caused by organizations the video of Jon talking about the news, that is an example of mediated interpersonal communication where Jon is still the source. The difference between these two examples of the source and Jon’s appearance on The Daily Show is that behind Stewart is an organization that is creating the news satire for him to present. Sure, Jon is reading the messages, and so it may seem that he should be called â€Å"the source. † But employees of The Daily Show helped him write his script, produced and edited the videos he introduces, and prepared his set for the broadcast. Moreover, the photos and clips he satirizes sometimes come from news firms, such as ABC News. So Jon is really just the most visible representative of an organizational source. Differences in Transmission The critical role of organizations in mass communication compared to other communication forms also shows up in the transmission of the message. In interpersonal, small group, and public communication, an individual sender or a committee takes responsibility for transmittingthe message—perhaps using microphones when speaking to a crowd or telephones when speaking at a distance. In mass communication, however, transmission is too complex to be accomplished by an indi- Mediated forms of interpersonal, group, organizational, and public communication may use channels similar to those used in mass communication. 13 U N D E R S T A N D I N G T H E N A T U R E O F M A S S M E D I A Jon Stewart, host of The Daily Show, isn’t a oneman band. It takes the entire Comedy Central organization—writers, producers, engineers, stage managers, sound technicians, camera people (to name a few)—to create each evening’s program. Stewart is the most visible representative of the organizational source that creates The Daily Show. vidual or even a few people. That is because transmission involves distributing the material to several locations and presenting the material (that is, exhibiting it) at those locations. Instead of a few individuals, a number of organizations (usually large ones) are typically involved in the process. Think of our Daily Show example again. When Jon reads the script on The Daily Show, his vocal cords transmit the words into a microphone; the air and electric current ar

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Visual Basic Toolbox Controls Essay Example

Visual Basic Toolbox Controls Essay Example Visual Basic Toolbox Controls Essay Visual Basic Toolbox Controls Essay The Toolbox Controls The Toolbox window holds all of the controls available to your VB. NET programs. Basic Controls First, let’s focus on the basic controls that are used in most programs. These controls are so essential that VB. NET would be utterly useless without them 1- Button The Button control is a key ingredient for an effective user interface. Buttons are normally found on the main form of a program and are used to perform tasks or bring up additional forms for the user. Notable Properties Important Properties of Button1 from Properties  Window: Appearance Appearance  section of the properties  window  allows us to make changes to the  appearance  of the Button. With the help of   BackColor  and  Background Image  properties we can set a background color  and a background image to the button. We set the font color and font style for the text that appears on button with  ForeColor  and the  Font  property. We change the appearance  style of the button with the  FlatStyle  property. We can change the text that appears on button with the  Text  property and with the  TextAlign  property we can set where on the button the text should appear from a predefined set of options. Behavior Notable Behavior properties of the Button are the  Enabled  and  Visible  properties. The Enabled property is set to True by default which makes the button enabled and setting its  property to  False makes the button Disabled. With the Visible property we can make the Button Visible or Invisible. The default value is set to True and to make the button Invisible set its property to  False. Layout With the  Location  property you can change the location of the button. With the Size property you can set the size of the button. 2- CheckBox The CheckBox control is a Boolean control that can be set to true or false. When the control’s value is true, the check box will be filled with a small x. Notable Properties Important properties of the  CheckBox  in the  Appearance  section of the properties  window  are: Appearance: Default value is Normal. Set the value to Button if you want the  CheckBox  to be  displayed  as a Button. BackgroundImage: Used to set a  background image  for the  checkbox. CheckAlign: Used to set the  alignment  for the  CheckBox  from a predefined list. Checked: Default value is False, set it to True if you want the  CheckBox  to be  displayed  as checked. CheckState: Default value is Unchecked. Set it to True if you want a check to appear. When set to Indeterminate it displays a check in gray background. FlatStyle: Default value is  Standard. Select the value from a predefined list to set the style of the  checkbox. 3- Label The Label control is used to display static labels on a form that generally don’t change while a program is running. The labels are commonly used alongside TextBox controls to describe the information sto red in the TextBox 4- LinkLabel The LinkLabel control is a specialized version of the Label control, which includes an Internet hyperlink so that when you click the label, the link is opened in the default Web browser (or e-mail program). RadioButton The RadioButton control is useless by itself because a mouse click can only set the value to true, not false (as is the case with CheckBox). RadioButton controls are only useful if two or more are placed together on a form or other container (such as a GroupBox), because they reflect a multiple-choice value as indicated by the selected con trol, not an individual true/false value. Notable Properties Important properties of the RadioButton in the  Appearance  section of the properties  window  are: Appearance: Default value is Normal. Set the value to Button if you want the RadioButton to be  displayed  as a Button. BackgroundImage: Used to set a  background image  for the RadioButton. CheckAlign: Used to set the  alignment  for the RadioButton from a predefined list. Checked: Default value is False, set it to True if you want the RadioButton to be  displayed  as checked. FlatStyle: Default value is  Standard. Select the value from a predefined list to set the style of the RadioButton. TextBox The TextBox control is a multi-purpose keyboard input and text output control capable of displaying multiple lines of text with automatic word wrapping. Some Notable Properties: Some important properties in the Behavior section of  the Properties  Window  for  TextBoxes. Enabled: Default value is True. To disable,  set the  property to  False. Multiline: Setting this  property to  True makes the TextBox multiline which allows to accept multiple lines of text. Default value is False. PasswordChar: Used to set the password character. The text displayed in the TextBox will be the character set by the user. Say, if you enter *,   the text that is entered in the TextBox is displayed as *. ReadOnly: Makes this TextBox readonly. It doesnt allow to enter any text. Visible: Default value is True. To hide it set the  property to  False. Important properties in the  Appearance  section TextAlign: Allows to align the text from three possible  options. The default value is left and you can set the  alignment  of text to right or center. Scrollbars: Allows to add a  scrollbar  to a Textbox. Very useful when the TextBox is multiline. You have four  options  with  this property. Options  are are None, Horizontal, Vertical and Both. Depending on the size of the TextBox anyone of those can be used

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Taxation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 3

Taxation - Essay Example The first problem involving Ms. Vaughan involves a sale of a house giving rise to the payment of Capital Gains Tax (CGT). CGT can only arise on the disposal of an asset, which is this case is the house. However, not all sales of properties are subject to CGT. The most common exemption and is relevant to the case we have is the sale of a person’s principal private residence. In identifying whether such sale is taxable or not, let us look into the facts involved in the case. Ms. Vaughan bought the property in Brechin in 2 January 1982. She resided in that house until May 1984 before moving to Germany. From then on until 31 August 1990, she did not reside in that house not even on holidays. She lived in that house again from June 1995 until May 2002 where at the same time, she lent a large portion of the house to a tenant. In June 2002, she moved to Liverpool and was never able to live in the house in Brechin again. The question now is whether or not the house in Brechin is the primary resident of Ms. Vaughn. A primary consideration in determining whether such house is the primary residence of a person is the time spent is that place and the intent to go back to such place and establish residence. Under our tax code, residence simply means the place where one lives. Determining ones residency is dependent on ones length of stay, number and frequency of trips to the place (i.e. habitual stay) and the intention to stay in that particular place. Judging by the amount of time Ms. Vaughan spent in the property in Brechin and the fact that she lent the house to a tenant while she occupied only a portion thereof belies the fact that she wants to establish the place as her primary residence. Thus, such sale of property do not fall under the exemption provided for under the law. The indexation allowance in capital gains tax is computed based on the indexation rate of March 1982. It must be noted that implementation for individuals of

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Dialogue Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Dialogue - Assignment Example In essence, the term described the groundbreaking cultural shift from uniqueness to seriality, from authenticity to replication, and from the original artwork to its inherent soulless mechanical copy. Me: As far as the communication and journalism is concerned, the concept has come under serious criticism, especially the lack of clear-cut and stable categorization from your writings (Benjamin 23). Indeed, a portion of the critics suggests that your writings provoke multivalent and ambiguous, rather than offering neat shorthand for transition from the traditional to modern culture. Your take please? Benjamin: Well, I think their basis for criticism is rather vague. In my essay The Work and Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility, I specifically emphasize on the concept of aura and the decline of photography, similar to other technological innovations. Further, I challenge the uniqueness and originality of photography due to the unprecedented replications. Benjamin: A programmatic analysis of the essay that I previously mentioned will show that I present the relationship between photography and aura as a clear-cut opposition. Thus, photography, as a medium of mechanical reproduction, is among the driving forces behind the decline, and thus destruction, of aura. I clearly assert that the element that withers in the era of technological reproducibility of artwork is its aura. In essence, the process is symptomatic, and perhaps extends beyond the boundaries of art. This is because photographic reproduction of original works of art endows them with accessibility and mobility, thus altering their fundamental mode of reception (Benjamin 24). In this regard therefore, the contemplation characteristic of the traditional spaces of museum and gallery submits to an eagerness for control and possession. Me: That is a very sensational explanation.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Unemployment and Poverty in Interwar Britain Essay Example for Free

Unemployment and Poverty in Interwar Britain Essay To interpret the interwar years of the British took a lot of different views according to the statuesque of one person in the comparison. It is precisely depending on topics, to some extent of interest. Perhaps in focus of economic depression of the interwar brought the period of worst turning point in Welsh history, at which it is the region of Britain that experience the height levels of levels of unemployment and greatest degree of poverty.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The wars brought a great impact to the nation status like economic and political condition. During war time people suffers a lot of agony. Many people like for example, the Liverpool dockworker, writers, political activist like George Garret and George Orwell, the historians shared opinions of the existing war of British, â€Å"Orwell vision is symbolic of traditional view of British society between the wars† (Orwell, George, Boston, 2000.1). With these Orwell’s vision, many argued and did not agree. This is the reason why must Historians never content with traditional views.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Historians interpretation of interwar Britain have not, therefore, completely changed views of   this period but it gave them a more complex and realistic understanding through. That is why; historian sees that Orwell is only one sided and did not tell the whole truth. Historians tried to see the contradiction of the age – â€Å"with poverty and affluence, underemployment but also new expanding industries† (www.groupstudystop.co.uk).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   I think the reason why Liverpool dockworker, writer, and political activist did not like George Orwell’s book since it is biased. He does not reveal the true scenery of what was the true picture of the conditions during those interwar days.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Noting in the past of the dockworker who suffered from â€Å"under schooled, under housed, under paid, under cared for an almost respects and with no reasonable hope of betterment, from an Old Etopian† (www.Historystripstop.co.uk), the most rich and powerful at that time. On the part of writer they do analyze and make assumptions that there is no doubt why poverty still exists at that time. These were the pessimistic accounts among literally men social investigator somewhat like a political activist like George Garret and John Lehman.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Looking back history, during the time at which at first glance look at England those days where peace still exist, it is unusual of foreign people to see English people in existence to the country. It is also said that the accent referred by Americans as â€Å"the English Accent†, is not common to almost all people at that time. Even movies and other advertisement dealt with hostile or friendly, nearly all generalizations made about England during that based on the property owning class. It was most overpowered by people who have had a great and big investment. The truth is that people was ruin by other people who just came bringing wealth just to ruin the country. In fact, the book wrote by George Orwell doesn’t reveal the fact about England those days. Actually the book titled: The Road of Wigan Pier does not reveal much about the actual situation of the society those days. Its is said that â€Å" It is worth trying for a moment to put oneself in the position of foreign observer, new England , but unprejudiced, and able because of his work, to keep in touch with ordinary people , useful unspectacular people†( Orwell, George. 2000. Pp. 1.)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Garret mean to what he says, â€Å"That it( The Road of Wigan Pier)†appears to be left book since it is just nothing to revealed the fact of what is really happening. It does not give factual information but just hide the things going wrong on the matter. Garret judge the book as junk one. References: Orwell, George. The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell. Vol. 3. Boston. 2000. Page 1. www.countrybookshop.co.uk. www.groupstudystop.co.uk